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To read Catherine Malabou is to embark upon an adventure of thought. Her writing demands change from her readers if they are to follow her on that adventure. It is a process of change that is sometimes joyful, sometimes painful.

Although Catherine Malabou’s thinking has led her to a wide variety of subjects that includes Hegel, Heidegger, deconstruction, neuroplasticity, epigenesis, Freud, Spinoza, Foucault, Kant, and the Anthropocene, there has been one constant theme that has been the focus of these works: the notion of change. The focus of her engagement with change has been the plastic qualities of change and transformation. If her earlier work can be said to centre around the creative aspects of plasticity, more recent works, such as The New Wounded (2012) and The Ontology of the Accident (2012), concentrate on its destructive aspects, such as the way in which subjectivity is exposed to the destructive plasticity of neural “damage,” whether through physical accidents that directly damage the brain or through conditions such as dementia.

Change is not the first theme that comes to mind when many readers encounter Malabou because Malabou was initially received as a thinker closely associated with the work of Jacques Derrida. Not only was Derrida her supervisor at the Écoles Normales Supérieure, he also collaborated with Malabou on her first works translated into English.Counterpaths (2004) was co-written with Derrida and investigated the notion of place in his work while The Future of Hegel (2004) was published with a lengthy preface by Derrida. This is an association which has greatly influenced the reception of Malabou’s philosophy as a critical engagement with Derrida’s notion of messianic time: the future as the unknowable and undeconstructable alterity of what is to come.

At first glance, the connection between the work of Catherine Malabou and political theology may seem difficult to grasp. What could a materialist philosopher, known for her work on neuroplasticity, have to say about the relationship between politics and theology? It is perhaps not to her major works that one must turn, but to a journal essay that introduces her as belonging to a group of thinkers responsible for a “continental shift” within Political Theology.

Creston Davies lists Catherine Malabou alongside Jacques Derrida, Jean-Luc Nancy, Giorgio Agamben and Alain Badiou as one of a number of continental philosophers whose work has begun to engage critically with issues connected to political theology. His own explanation for this shift is that after a crisis of faith in the aims and ideals of Marxist-led critique, a search for a new way of relating to meaning and time has led towards an engagement with what are commonly thought of as “theological” concepts.

In Clayton Crockett and Catherine Malabou’s collaborative article in the same journal issue, they explore the nature of the relationship of her work with deconstruction. This relationship is depicted against a backdrop of a particular development in the critique of the metaphysics of presence. Just as there is a certain strand of self-critique within theology itself that leads to negative theology as its ultimate conclusion, there is also a strand within critical philosophy, a strand that seems particularly prominent within deconstruction, that leads towards the thought that presence is always to-come, always delayed, or present only through absence in the form of a trace.

Crockett and Malabou describe how, rather than seeing themselves as part of this development, they are trying to find a way outside of it. Particularly problematic for them is the notion of messianism in Derrida and Agamben and the effect it has on our understanding of time. Messianism is a notion that is too rooted in an understanding of time as a series of nows (the Aristotelian notion of time critiqued by Heidegger) and also leads to an understanding of finitude measured against infinitude, against the infinite being of God-to-come. Such a notion prevents a radical understanding of time, one that is not measured against its coming to an end in the infinite, but rather one that comes to understand time as change. Yet, if on one hand Derrida seems trapped within the metaphysics of presence that he is trying to critique, he also seems to offer a way out of it with his notion of time as spacing, a notion that can be transferred into an understanding of time as plastic and materialist (neuronal and cerebral in Malabou’s case). It seems that Malabou keeps alive the hope that it would be possible to separate deconstruction from the theological destructio that comes to us through Luther and Heidegger (26). 

Plasticity is the concept for which Malabou is best known; it is the focus of her work on Hegel, Freud and neuroscience. Crockett and Malabou tell us, “Plasticity concerns form, but it stretches our ordinary understanding of what form is and means” (24). They describe plasticity as meaning the capacity to receive form passively, the power to give form actively, and the power to receive form (25). For Crockett and Malabou, “The plasticity of concepts is the condition of possibility for their deconstruction, and not the other way around” (27). What Malabou and Crockett propose is a theology freed from Christ (or Christ radically transformed, perhaps “exploded”), a plastic theology and a plastic philosophy. Theology would survive in its production of immaterial concepts, “a machine for making Gods”(32), and that machine would be the brain.

With these remarks, we are still very much focused on the relationship between theology and philosophy rather than on political theology itself. Where all of this can help us in coming to understand the potential in Malabou’s thought for political theology is in the notion of form. To read Catherine Malabou is to embark upon an adventure of thought. Her thought demands change from her readers if they are to follow her upon that adventure. It is a process of change that is sometimes joyful, sometimes painful.

An engagement between the thought of Catherine Malabou and political theology is painful in the sense that Christian thinking is so dominant in the tradition of continental philosophy that we find it almost impossible to think the theological without Christ, without Paul, and without the Christian God. Such an engagement is also joyful because it provokes us towards new thoughts, thoughts that take us beyond the stumbling block of belief and non-belief.

What does a plastic political theology look like? How does it differ from a Christian-based political theology? Perhaps unsurprisingly, as a good Hegelian, Malabou demonstrates in The Future of Hegel (2005) that this difference is a false one, and that plasticity was already present within Christian thought itself. In that work, Malabou restages the movement of divine spirit in Hegel — from nature religion (animism), to figural religion (God as a person, personified in Christ), to God’s form of presence as Holy Spirit — as a plastic process. Malabou focuses on the moment of kenosis, the death of God in the figure of Christ which is the death of God as representation or figure. It is precisely kenosis that describes the plasticity of spirit, the way it must cease to be what it is in order to become what it can be (that spirit already was in the form of self-othering). It must give up being in order to become becoming (to become the self-othering that it already was).

Hegel’s notion of kenosis suggests a lack in God, a part of God that is always-already other. This notion also requires that one deals with the difficult subject of the death of God the son, his loss of human form. The movement of change in divine plasticity is the death of “God” in terms of God having a particular form, but it is not the total annihilation of God’s being; God still has a content. Materialism is not the end of God, but the change of God. God becomes the divine plasticity that is its own becoming. What God “is” to us, as a representation or idea, is not what God “is” in himself. It is precisely the non-critical “is” of human understanding that God would have to shake off if God is to be what God is. God as a figure of representation dies to the understanding in order that we can develop a new understanding of God, one that can overcome the difference between spirit and matter. It is in this sense that being becomes becoming, God becomes the movement of the concept; as divine plasticity, God never loses what God “is” since God’s “being” is change.

For Malabou, not only does this process describe the form of time, it also describes the form of subjectivity. Hegel’s Vorstellung, the process of representation, is God’s active giving of God’s self in which God is both shaping and shaped. It is also subjectivity’s consciousness as it gives itself forms and receives forms in representation. Hegel’s Aufhebung, that which is lost in the form that changes (hence both overcome and raised) is the way “sublation cancels and preserves, but it only preserves or constitutes a future by means of cancelling or destroying the present, a present moment it generates by means of giving itself a sense of a linear succession” (26).

Hegel represents a way in which we can both engage with the Christian legacy and transform it, the Aufhebung of Christianity. This same Aufhebung describes the movement of the subject and the movement of time. In light of this, what would need to change in political theology? What is the painful loss that it must overcome if it is to embrace its transformation? We have already indicated above that the first step would be an attempt to find a theology that is not tied to messianism. In the realm of politics, the painful loss would be expressed as a need to find a politics that is not based upon ends. It would be the search for the common good without a model, without a kingdom, and without an end. Malabou has explored this in recent talks and interviews where she reflects upon anarchism, a subject that she discusses further in a forthcoming book. She anticipates examining the resistance to political anarchism by philosophers who attempt to think without grounds and foundations, and engaging with Kropotkin’s idea of mutual aid. This would mean that if theology must untie itself from Christianity, then politics would have to untie itself from the notion of government and governmentality. Malabou states, “Anarchy implies the autonomous formation of social organisations, free from centralisation and hierarchies. It is the most plastic form of politics.”

In earlier work, such as the essay “Will Sovereignty Ever Be Deconstructed?”, Malabou charges that other philosophers, including Foucault, Derrida, and Agamben, have failed to “cut off the King’s head” of sovereignty (35) precisely because they attempt to define that which resists sovereignty, leaving sovereignty still intact. 

For Foucault, it is bodies that can upset the paradigm of sovereignty. For Agamben, it is bare life. For Derrida, it is animality. In each case, the philosopher maintains a split between the symbolic power of a sovereign and the biological life that it acts upon. Referring to Kantorowicz’s The King’s Two Bodies (1957), Malabou writes, “It is then striking to notice that the critique or deconstruction of sovereignty is structured as the very entity it tends to critique or deconstruct. By distinguishing two lives and two bodies, contemporary philosophers reaffirm the theory of sovereignty, that is, the split between the symbolic and the biological” (39). The very fact that the terms of politics and theology are interchangeable, that one can be unveiled within the other, such as in Carl Schmitt’s famous statement, “All significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts” (2005: 36), means that we are dealing with what Lévi-Strauss calls “floating signifiers,” concepts with shifting definition. The attempt to remove oneself from the paradigm of the sovereign will itself always be based upon a sovereign decision; it will be the transformation of a floating signifier into a rigid form (42). Transformation into a floating signifier is precisely the change that God undergoes in The Future of Hegel (2005). This is what enables us to find God in the political in the form of spirit, a floating signifier preserved is a plastic form. 

A plastic political theology means an attempt to think beyond a logic of disenchantment whereby one attempts to come to a sovereign decision about what ”politics” and “theology” should mean, and what the form of their relationship should be. Contra Schmitt, for Malabou the theological is not the genetic code that dictates all the possible secular political forms it can take. What occurs is instead closer to that which Malabou calls epigenesis: the political and the theological share an “originary intrication.” Theology and politics contain within themselves the plasticity of form that opens them to anarchic transformation. By critiquing the sovereign decisions that politics should be governmental and not anarchic, and that theology should be Christian and not otherwise, the necessary conditions for the birth of a plastic political theology come into being.

Annotated Bibliography

Catherine Malabou, The Future of Hegel – Plasticity, Temporality and Dialectic. New York: Routledge, 2005.

One of the first works by Malabou to be published in English, and the basis of much of the discussion about the relationship between her work and Derrida’s due to his lengthy preface. Malabou discusses Hegel’s anthropology and his early theological writings. The book contains dense and important analyses of habit, time, logic and religion and is a key work for understanding Malabou’s philosophy of plasticity. 

Catherine Malabou, The Heidegger Change – On the Fantastic in Philosophy. New York: SUNY Press, 2011.

An important work on Heidegger that examines his notion of change and how it effects our understanding of the place of Ereignis in his work. By examining the presence of words for change in Heidegger’s philosophy (Wandel, Wandlung, Verwandlung), Malabou arrives at an understanding of Ereignis as metamorphosis, being as transformation. A vital work for understanding how being is to be understood as becoming in her ontological perspective.

Catherine Malabou, What Should We Do With Our Brain? New York: Fordham University Press, 2008.

This work serves as an excellent introduction to Malabou’s philosophical perspective on the plasticity of brains. It is here that Malabou explores the philosophical and political consequences for cerebral subjectivity and offers a critique of contemporary capitalism. Its reflections on bodily and psychic metamorphosis are further explored in later works such The New Wounded (2012) and Ontology of the Accident (2012).

Kojin Karatani

A short overview of Kojin Karatani’s Marxist influenced focus on modes of exchange as revealing the Borromean ring of Capital-Nation-State, and the import of this ring for religion.

Silvia Federici

Federici provides a model for political theologians engaging with race, gender, and sexuality through the lens of capitalist oppression

Luce Irigaray

“Perhaps it is in precisely this ambivalent way that air (and Irigaray) reminds us of just how much we belong—to the air itself, to this emptiness that hovers and sings in lifedeath. We might forget air, we might forget that we breathe, or how to breathe. But air does not forget us. And air will never cease to carry us, to lift us up, to set us into flight, even when we no longer live in a body that tried (if unsuccessfully) to fly.”

Niklas Luhmann

David Kline introduces the systems theory of Niklas Luhmann for political theology and reflects on how it might think about its own limits of observation.

N. Katherine Hayles

A reflection on the political implications of N. Katherine Hayles’ critical aesthetic inquiry into the ecological relationships between the human and the technological, thought and cognition, and information and materiality.

Isabelle Stengers

Isabelle Stengers, continental philosopher of science, offers pragmatic resources for animating thinking with interest and passion, affirming heresy over conformity and undercutting the all-too-common binaries of religion/science and science/fiction.

François Laruelle

“[For] quantum gnostics, there has never been a creation of the world or in the world—it is the world that is ‘wicked’ or ‘evil’, and consequently also the God who claimed to have created it and yet hesitates to assume it.”

Enrique Dussel

Rafael Vizcaíno offers a biographical introduction to the philosophical work of Enrique Dussel, a major figure of the decolonial turn. Separate from his theology, Dussel’s philosophy of liberation offers crucial reflections for contemporary political theology.

Claude Lefort

It is as productive to think with as it is to think against Claude Lefort, a revolutionary-turned-philosopher who analyzed power and the political regimes to which it gives rise.

Fred Moten

Moten’s prophecy bespeaks aesthetic registers in ordinary (Black) life, but he denies that the aesthetic is redemptive.

Saba Mahmood

Saba Mahmood (1962-2018) was a pioneering anthropologist of Islam and secularism, a feminist theorist of gender and religion, and a critic of liberal certainties.

Paul Virilio

Paul Virilio, one of France’s foremost theorists of speed and technology, is a deep well for doing political theology in an apocalyptic time.

Stuart Hall

The late public intellectual Stuart Hall, with his concept of the conjuncture, assists political theology in analyzing our current moment and potential interventions.

Talal Asad

Rather than establishing structural analogies or historical filiations between “religion” and “politics” (terms he opens to question), Talal Asad urges attention to shifts in the grammar of concepts across different situations.

Quentin Meillassoux

Meillassoux’s thinking of post-Copernican cosmic immanence and cosmic delegitimation constitutes a challenge to political theology as still predominantly Ptolemaic in its assumptions and focus

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt argued that interreligious difference and Christian theology are steady influences on political movements, action, and thought.

Catherine Malabou

To read Catherine Malabou is to embark upon an adventure of thought. Her writing demands change from her readers if they are to follow her on that adventure. It is a process of change that is sometimes joyful, sometimes painful.

Jean-François Lyotard

Lyotard’s thought as it appears in Le Différend describes a linguistic state that evades speech, and the ways in which justice could be done to it, or not. Bearing witness to unpronounceable utterances brings about the idea of faith.

Aime Césaire

This essay will uplift Césaire’s anticolonial consciousness, in hopes that new directions in political theology might emerge/surface

Jacob Taubes

Taubes’s thought revolves around two poles, philosophy of history and political theology, with the aim of inverting the Schmittian position and thinking a new form of community by means of an innovative return to Paul of Tarsus and Walter Benjamin.

Gloria Anzaldúa

Anzaldúa develops a theory of this borderlands consciousness through the experiential and embodied knowledges of Chicanx (and women of color) feminisms; or what she calls a ‘mestiza consciousness’.

Martin Buber

Meeting Martin Buber, in other words, means meeting the voice behind the words, a man who did not always know how to “recover from institutions.”

Han Byung-Chul

Psychopolitics is Han’s main contribution to political theory. It reflects Han’s rethinking of Bentham’s panopticon and Foucault’s biopower as disciplinary society transitioned into a digital achievement society that defines our contemporary neoliberal globalized world.

Jean-Luc Marion

[Marion’s] central concepts and phenomenological method offer an ambiguous resource for political theology: on the one hand, he articulates a rigorous method of doing phenomenology which is trained to remain open to phenomena historically ignored and marginalized, and on the other hand, his own conclusions can veer towards a Christian triumphalism which is in danger of betraying the primary aim of his philosophical project.

Kuan-Hsing Chen

Chen suggests that Western political theologians should incorporate more resources from local knowledge—such as popular culture, literature, films, and music—in order to notice resistance in daily life.

Judith Butler

Judith Butler’s work has altered the trajectories of multiple disciplines in the last thirty years; what can they teach scholars of political theology?

Anibal Quijano

Quijano reimagines the long-lasting and contemporary status of colonialism seen through the lenses of race, modernity/rationality, and economic exploitation, encouraging us to produce theological and political critiques from the ever-enduring nature of coloniality.

Michel Henry

What [Henry’s] oeuvre offers political theology is a reimagining of what constitutes life together—an attention to Life and thereby, spirituality.

Cedric Robinson

Vega focuses on three Robinsonian concepts that are useful for political theology: racial capitalism, Black radical tradition, and African metaphysics.

Marcella Althaus-Reid

Althaus-Reid’s work asks whether Political Theology is capable of accounting for the power of sex, a power that comes to the fore if the theologian focuses on queer bodies.

Julia Kristeva

Kristeva’s psychoanalytic approach and practice shed light on the unconscious, affective, and bodily formation(s) of religious and political discourses and systems.

Achille Mbembe

Achille Mbembe’s work excavates the legacies of colonial reason and violence shaping the powers of death in the world today.

Frank Wilderson III

Wilderson doesn’t use the term “zombies” in his work. But his afropessimist stance includes a set of concepts—social death, gratuitous violence, sentient (but not living) existence—that could be easily applied to any episode of The Walking Dead.

Adriana Cavarero

Cavarero’s feminist theory of nonviolence takes the biblical commandment of “Thou Shall Not Kill” as its starting point. This commandment is ethical (it is about one’s relationships with others) and religious (it is about one’s relationship with God), but it is also political (without it, political communities cannot exist).

Jean-Luc Nancy

The subtlety and poetry of Nancy’s language can mask the rigor and the urgency of his thinking. I hope to share that rigor and urgency here, particularly as it relates to global capitalism, Christianity, and ontology.

Roberto Esposito

In Esposito’s most explicit political theology work, he is concerned with re-working, or rather destabilizing, the essence of political theology.

Ernst Bloch

In many ways, Bloch’s work inverts the classic dictum of political theology advanced by Carl Schmitt, that “all significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts.” For Bloch, theological concepts are intimations of the freedom of the secular and revolutionary socialist society.

The Invisible Committee

The Invisible Committee may be productively, albeit counterintuitively, understood as Gnostic, a perspective that will put into question some of the assumptions behind the way the political and the theological are demarcated from and related to each other in contemporary debates.

Gil Anidjar

While Carl Schmitt claims that the enemy constitutes “the political,” his various writings largely ignore the historical and discursive evolution of the enemy. Anidjar’s major contribution to modern political theology lies in responding to this lacuna.

Sara Ahmed

Scholars and activists cannot rely on fact-checking or dry reason in this political climate. We have to feel our way toward change.

Hortense Spillers

What would it mean for scholarship in political theology to claim monstrosity? Perhaps it would mean focusing on underappreciated aspects of the Christian tradition, and other religious traditions, particularly those developed by women’s intellectual labor.

Lauren Berlant

Berlant is our preeminent contemporary theorist of how intimate practices bleed into and with national formations, and condition specific and powerful fantasies for what a good life or functional society would involve. To read their work is to become attuned to a set of dynamics that can be excavated in any given scene: the attachments being made and unmade, the forms of belonging that flash up and dissolve, the feeling-worlds that mediate everyday life, what remains unfinished.

Critical Theory for Political Theology: From Theorists to Keywords

We launched this series to make available theoretical resources that keep pace with the concerns raised by those working with political theology today, whose interests are increasingly tied not only to questions of genealogy, speculation, and political modernity, but also to questions of race, colonialism, gender, sexuality, disability, ecology, labor, finance capitalism, and economies of affect. 

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