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David Kline introduces the systems theory of Niklas Luhmann for political theology and reflects on how it might think about its own limits of observation.

Although he is not well known in American theoretical circles, the late German sociologist and systems theorist Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) is widely considered one of the most influential and controversial social theorists of the 20th century. While the classical social theories of Durkheim, Marx, Weber, et al have enjoyed much engagement from political theology, and though many of the major categories that Luhmann’s theory addresses are at the center of political theological debates, he remains conspicuously absent from mainstream conversations. 

In this introduction, I suggest that political theology finds in Luhmann’s social systems theory an intensely abstract and productive method for answering questions of how it both legitimates itself as a system of knowledge and how it observes other social, political, economic, legal, and religious systems of meaning.

Luhmann’s remarkably consistent theoretical output over his three-decade spanning career and roughly seventy books was driven by a single formulation: society is a self-producing, “autopoietic” system of observation that is comprised not of human beings, but of communications that operate around the binary distinction between system and environment. One of Luhmann’s most controversial insights, and one that has produced much fodder for posthumanist theory, is that while human beings do provide society with “information,” they are not actually included within it but rather make up part of its environment. 

However, counter-intuitive this might sound, one way to understand this distinction between human beings and society is by thinking it alongside Derrida’s famous deconstruction of the “auto-affection” of the voice-as-presence, or the valorization of speech over writing (as techne). As with deconstruction, Luhmann takes the side of the latter: society is a technological ecology of communications untethered from human consciousness, intention, and control. 

For Luhmann, society produces communications through the “observation of observation,” a central theme in all his writings which is referred to as “second-order observation.” “Observation” should be understood here in the widest possible sense, and simply means the positing of distinctions. To observe is to make a distinction, and second-order observation refers to making distinctions about distinctions. Political decision making, social media, academic peer review, the New York Stock exchange, and theology are all examples of social devices that operate as second-order observation. 

In Luhmann’s understanding of observation, there are a number of implications for how political theology, itself a form of second-order observation, might understand its own observation of observation. Following Luhmann, it is epistemology, not just political theology’s more familiar terrain of ontology, that re-emerges as a crucial frame for a coherent and unified account of society and its orders of knowledge and power, not as a substance that precedes observation but as an entity that emerges through it. While the Kantian search for the conditions of cognition certainly looms large in Luhmann, the difference is there is no transcendental structure and cognition is a purely functional (autopoietic) operation not reducible to human consciousness. 

One of Luhmann’s most important insights for social theory is what he, drawing from Maturana and Varela, describes as social system’s “operational closure.” What a system can observe (about its environment and about itself) is wholly determined by the system’s own internally regulated and recursive codes and distinctions. 

Operational closure, however, does not mean that social systems have no relation to their outside or that they are somehow cut off from what goes on in their environment. It is precisely operational closure that allows the system to remain open to its environment as it filters an infinitely complex and otherwise overwhelming set of elements through its specific operations.

For political theology, taking seriously its own operational closure forces it to confront both its contingency as a system of knowledge and its autonomy vis-à-vis its objects of observation that make up its environment. Like any other system, political theological observation is always based on the two-sided form system/environment (its “unity of distinction”), meaning that it has its own specific environment that is the self-referential product of the system. Furthermore, its observations are always based on a paradoxical identity between the two sides that unifies both necessity and contingency, the particular system and its infinite environment. 

It is in this paradox that Luhmann refers to the “blind spot” of all observation: the system can never observe its own unity as it must necessarily stay on the “inside” of the system/environment distinction. To do otherwise, to dissolve the unity by crossing into the environment, would be to dissolve the very basis of its existence. While it can never observe its own foundational unity, it can “re-enter” the system/environment distinction back into the system, allowing it to incorporate into itself that which is excluded and thereby confront its own contingency against an infinite environment. However, the foundational unity of its own observation must remain “hidden” if the system is to continue in its operations. 

Though no system can observe its own paradoxical unity, the blind spot of observation can be observed by an outside observer—another system with its own self-referential environment—that can distinguish the form as containing both sides. This is essentially what is happening when political theology observes the modern political system through its own codes of distinction. One could even say that modern (western) political theology begins with the observation of the paradox of the “secular” political system’s own distinction from theology, which, as an outside observer, political theology sees as always conditioned by the inclusion of the excluded.

For a well-known example, as political theology observes the unity of distinction between the western political system’s theologically inherited paradox of sovereignty and bare life, it becomes apparent that this distinction is always self-referentially posited on the side of sovereignty as it excludes that which forms its environment. In this second-order observation, political theology is able to observe how sovereignty is always based on the blind spot of its own constitution and therefore blind to its own contingency in the face of environmental complexity. Hence, as Derrida observes of Schmitt, the “madness” of the sovereign decision. 

What Luhmann shows, however, is that the same kind of second-order observation, which is able to deconstruct the objects of political theology to great effect, can also be applied to political theological observation itself, which must also rely on its own paradoxes and blind spots. This is why political theology will always be subject to the counter-observations of other systems, who may be able to “see many more and quite different things that are not necessarily accessible to the system” (Luhmann, 2013, p. 57). Because of the blind spot of observation that arises in its own system/environment distinction, political theology (like every other system) must continuously confront its own contingency through further system complexification and increasingly reproduce the paradox of observation through more and more distinctions. 

Keeping with our political theological example, the deconstruction of sovereignty (and not to mention other second-order observations regarding political legitimacy, economy, demonization, etc.) has fueled the production of an enormous amount of literature (“observations of observations”) that functions to sustain the political theological system’s autopoiesis through new distinctions and new possibilities through which the system reproduces itself. In this way, political theology’s own blind spot of observation, far from being a constraint, is actually the basis of its continuing productivity. 

There is already much precedent for this kind of analysis within certain kinds of theology. Luhmann was particularly fascinated with the way that the Christian tradition of negative theology pushes the blind spot of cognition to its radical implications. As he compares modern forms of rational-based epistemology with the mystical tradition of medieval theologians such as John Scotus Eriugina (815-877 C.E.) and Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464 C.E.), he says, “no traditional epistemology could dare go this far—obviously because the position from which it would have had to deal with distinctions was occupied by theology” (Luhmann, 2006, p. 250). 

Especially in Cusa, the idea that all observation is ultimately blind in relationship to the “oneness” of God’s absolute truth, that all particular perception ultimately falls short of the whole, is the foundation of a mystical theology of unknowing in which God remains beyond all cognition and earthly knowledge, which is to say, beyond all distinction. Luhmann’s systems theory is making a very similar point, although instead of God it is “reality” that remains inaccessible to observation.

The only way to observe reality, to observe God, is to “wound” its original unity through a distinction, meaning through the positing of a blind spot that ensures the whole will never be accessed. Of course, this is exactly where we—which is always a particular, differentiated, and never universalizable “we”— find ourselves, in a wounded world of difference unable to identify a beginning or end, like Emerson’s staircase. We would have no existence and no basis for experience without making distinctions against and about God-Reality, leaving us inescapably bound to our blind spots. Theology, or any other observational perspective, can only be a discipline of the fallen, inaugurated as an original act of what the Christian tradition would call “sin,” and which here we might neutralize by simply referring to it as “drawing a distinction.” 

This is basically how Luhmann understood (and sympathized with) the Devil in Christian theology, the first “theologian” to make a distinction and thereby become differentiated from God. In this sense the Devil, a figure of significant importance for political theology, might also be construed as the first autopoietic system of observation. Once the distinction was made, once the circle had been drawn, the system formed its own operations to maintain the difference with its environment so as not to be dissolved into it. 

Following in this original distinction, “the world” came into being as an ecology of the differentiated, forever alienating itself from God. After this “fall” from reality, the only thing left to do was to maintain the system distinction by building up inner complexity through further re-entries and distinctions that produced more and more differences and more and more circles of experience.

While there is much more to say regarding what this ecological framework of blind observation means for political theological reflection, particularly in terms of the possibility of justice-oriented interventions into society, and while there is much to say regarding Luhmann’s own political conclusions that often erred on the side of conservative reactionism, one of the lessons that political theology might take from Luhmann is that its own blind spots are simultaneously the source of the unique insights it can make about the world and its limitation in terms of the “truth” of those insights. 

What Luhmann shows is that no theory (including Luhmann’s itself) can claim the final or definitive account of the truth of society, and that all theory is conditioned by a radical contingency and groundlessness where there can always be a different way of observing the world. Indeed, because this is the case, political theology continues to have a future in which it can make a difference. 

Annotated Bibliography

Niklas Luhmann. Introduction to Systems Theory Malden: Polity Press, 2013. 

Although there is no easy entry into Luhmann’s highly dense and abstract writing, this book, which is derived from a lecture course he gave at the University of Bielefeld in the early 1990s, is as close as he gets to a general and accessible introduction to the basic tenets of his systems theory. 

Niklas Luhmann. A Systems Theory of Religion Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013

Luhmann wrote a great deal on the system of religion, a topic of obvious interest for political theology, and this book is a good place to start for understanding his approach to religion as a self-organizing system of communication. As one of the multiple sub-systems of a “functionally differentiated” modern world society, Luhmann theorizes religion as particularly adept at addressing the indeterminate and uncontrollable nature of the world through the code “immanence/transcendence.” 

Niklas Luhmann, “How can the Mind participate in Communication?” in Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht and K. Ludwig Pfieffer, Eds. Materialities of Communication Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

This is a good essay for understanding Luhmann’s hard distinction between human beings, which he understands as a conglomeration of “psychic systems” (the mind) and multiple living systems (cells, nervous system, cardiovascular system, etc.), and social communication. 

Luhmann, Niklas. “Cognition as Construction” in Hans-Georg Moeller, Luhmann Explained: From Souls to Systems Peru: Carus Publishing Company, 2006. 

This essay is a good and relatively accessible entry into Luhmann’s epistemological program, clearly outlining his understanding of observation and the radical constructivism of all cognition. It can be found as an appendix to Hans-Georg Moeller’s Luhmann Explained: From Souls to System, which is one of the more helpful secondary introductions to Luhmann’s thought. 

Kojin Karatani

A short overview of Kojin Karatani’s Marxist influenced focus on modes of exchange as revealing the Borromean ring of Capital-Nation-State, and the import of this ring for religion.

Silvia Federici

Federici provides a model for political theologians engaging with race, gender, and sexuality through the lens of capitalist oppression

Luce Irigaray

“Perhaps it is in precisely this ambivalent way that air (and Irigaray) reminds us of just how much we belong—to the air itself, to this emptiness that hovers and sings in lifedeath. We might forget air, we might forget that we breathe, or how to breathe. But air does not forget us. And air will never cease to carry us, to lift us up, to set us into flight, even when we no longer live in a body that tried (if unsuccessfully) to fly.”

Niklas Luhmann

David Kline introduces the systems theory of Niklas Luhmann for political theology and reflects on how it might think about its own limits of observation.

N. Katherine Hayles

A reflection on the political implications of N. Katherine Hayles’ critical aesthetic inquiry into the ecological relationships between the human and the technological, thought and cognition, and information and materiality.

Isabelle Stengers

Isabelle Stengers, continental philosopher of science, offers pragmatic resources for animating thinking with interest and passion, affirming heresy over conformity and undercutting the all-too-common binaries of religion/science and science/fiction.

François Laruelle

“[For] quantum gnostics, there has never been a creation of the world or in the world—it is the world that is ‘wicked’ or ‘evil’, and consequently also the God who claimed to have created it and yet hesitates to assume it.”

Enrique Dussel

Rafael Vizcaíno offers a biographical introduction to the philosophical work of Enrique Dussel, a major figure of the decolonial turn. Separate from his theology, Dussel’s philosophy of liberation offers crucial reflections for contemporary political theology.

Claude Lefort

It is as productive to think with as it is to think against Claude Lefort, a revolutionary-turned-philosopher who analyzed power and the political regimes to which it gives rise.

Fred Moten

Moten’s prophecy bespeaks aesthetic registers in ordinary (Black) life, but he denies that the aesthetic is redemptive.

Saba Mahmood

Saba Mahmood (1962-2018) was a pioneering anthropologist of Islam and secularism, a feminist theorist of gender and religion, and a critic of liberal certainties.

Paul Virilio

Paul Virilio, one of France’s foremost theorists of speed and technology, is a deep well for doing political theology in an apocalyptic time.

Stuart Hall

The late public intellectual Stuart Hall, with his concept of the conjuncture, assists political theology in analyzing our current moment and potential interventions.

Talal Asad

Rather than establishing structural analogies or historical filiations between “religion” and “politics” (terms he opens to question), Talal Asad urges attention to shifts in the grammar of concepts across different situations.

Quentin Meillassoux

Meillassoux’s thinking of post-Copernican cosmic immanence and cosmic delegitimation constitutes a challenge to political theology as still predominantly Ptolemaic in its assumptions and focus

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt argued that interreligious difference and Christian theology are steady influences on political movements, action, and thought.

Catherine Malabou

To read Catherine Malabou is to embark upon an adventure of thought. Her writing demands change from her readers if they are to follow her on that adventure. It is a process of change that is sometimes joyful, sometimes painful.

Jean-François Lyotard

Lyotard’s thought as it appears in Le Différend describes a linguistic state that evades speech, and the ways in which justice could be done to it, or not. Bearing witness to unpronounceable utterances brings about the idea of faith.

Aime Césaire

This essay will uplift Césaire’s anticolonial consciousness, in hopes that new directions in political theology might emerge/surface

Jacob Taubes

Taubes’s thought revolves around two poles, philosophy of history and political theology, with the aim of inverting the Schmittian position and thinking a new form of community by means of an innovative return to Paul of Tarsus and Walter Benjamin.

Gloria Anzaldúa

Anzaldúa develops a theory of this borderlands consciousness through the experiential and embodied knowledges of Chicanx (and women of color) feminisms; or what she calls a ‘mestiza consciousness’.

Martin Buber

Meeting Martin Buber, in other words, means meeting the voice behind the words, a man who did not always know how to “recover from institutions.”

Han Byung-Chul

Psychopolitics is Han’s main contribution to political theory. It reflects Han’s rethinking of Bentham’s panopticon and Foucault’s biopower as disciplinary society transitioned into a digital achievement society that defines our contemporary neoliberal globalized world.

Jean-Luc Marion

[Marion’s] central concepts and phenomenological method offer an ambiguous resource for political theology: on the one hand, he articulates a rigorous method of doing phenomenology which is trained to remain open to phenomena historically ignored and marginalized, and on the other hand, his own conclusions can veer towards a Christian triumphalism which is in danger of betraying the primary aim of his philosophical project.

Kuan-Hsing Chen

Chen suggests that Western political theologians should incorporate more resources from local knowledge—such as popular culture, literature, films, and music—in order to notice resistance in daily life.

Judith Butler

Judith Butler’s work has altered the trajectories of multiple disciplines in the last thirty years; what can they teach scholars of political theology?

Anibal Quijano

Quijano reimagines the long-lasting and contemporary status of colonialism seen through the lenses of race, modernity/rationality, and economic exploitation, encouraging us to produce theological and political critiques from the ever-enduring nature of coloniality.

Michel Henry

What [Henry’s] oeuvre offers political theology is a reimagining of what constitutes life together—an attention to Life and thereby, spirituality.

Cedric Robinson

Vega focuses on three Robinsonian concepts that are useful for political theology: racial capitalism, Black radical tradition, and African metaphysics.

Marcella Althaus-Reid

Althaus-Reid’s work asks whether Political Theology is capable of accounting for the power of sex, a power that comes to the fore if the theologian focuses on queer bodies.

Julia Kristeva

Kristeva’s psychoanalytic approach and practice shed light on the unconscious, affective, and bodily formation(s) of religious and political discourses and systems.

Achille Mbembe

Achille Mbembe’s work excavates the legacies of colonial reason and violence shaping the powers of death in the world today.

Frank Wilderson III

Wilderson doesn’t use the term “zombies” in his work. But his afropessimist stance includes a set of concepts—social death, gratuitous violence, sentient (but not living) existence—that could be easily applied to any episode of The Walking Dead.

Adriana Cavarero

Cavarero’s feminist theory of nonviolence takes the biblical commandment of “Thou Shall Not Kill” as its starting point. This commandment is ethical (it is about one’s relationships with others) and religious (it is about one’s relationship with God), but it is also political (without it, political communities cannot exist).

Jean-Luc Nancy

The subtlety and poetry of Nancy’s language can mask the rigor and the urgency of his thinking. I hope to share that rigor and urgency here, particularly as it relates to global capitalism, Christianity, and ontology.

Roberto Esposito

In Esposito’s most explicit political theology work, he is concerned with re-working, or rather destabilizing, the essence of political theology.

Ernst Bloch

In many ways, Bloch’s work inverts the classic dictum of political theology advanced by Carl Schmitt, that “all significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts.” For Bloch, theological concepts are intimations of the freedom of the secular and revolutionary socialist society.

The Invisible Committee

The Invisible Committee may be productively, albeit counterintuitively, understood as Gnostic, a perspective that will put into question some of the assumptions behind the way the political and the theological are demarcated from and related to each other in contemporary debates.

Gil Anidjar

While Carl Schmitt claims that the enemy constitutes “the political,” his various writings largely ignore the historical and discursive evolution of the enemy. Anidjar’s major contribution to modern political theology lies in responding to this lacuna.

Sara Ahmed

Scholars and activists cannot rely on fact-checking or dry reason in this political climate. We have to feel our way toward change.

Hortense Spillers

What would it mean for scholarship in political theology to claim monstrosity? Perhaps it would mean focusing on underappreciated aspects of the Christian tradition, and other religious traditions, particularly those developed by women’s intellectual labor.

Lauren Berlant

Berlant is our preeminent contemporary theorist of how intimate practices bleed into and with national formations, and condition specific and powerful fantasies for what a good life or functional society would involve. To read their work is to become attuned to a set of dynamics that can be excavated in any given scene: the attachments being made and unmade, the forms of belonging that flash up and dissolve, the feeling-worlds that mediate everyday life, what remains unfinished.

Critical Theory for Political Theology: From Theorists to Keywords

We launched this series to make available theoretical resources that keep pace with the concerns raised by those working with political theology today, whose interests are increasingly tied not only to questions of genealogy, speculation, and political modernity, but also to questions of race, colonialism, gender, sexuality, disability, ecology, labor, finance capitalism, and economies of affect. 

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